The history of Islam is the history of the Muslim people. Muslims are adherents of Islam. They have impacted political history, economic history, and military history. Following its origin in Mecca and Medina, the Islamic world expanded to include people of the Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization.
Three centuries after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Arab Caliphates extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. The subsequent empires of the Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Ajuuraan, Adal, Warsangali in Somalia, Ghaznavids, Seljuqs, Safavids, Mughals, and Ottomans were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; and the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace.
In the later Middle Ages, destructive Mongol invasions from the East, and the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centre of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire was able to conquer most Arabic-speaking areas, creating an Islamic world power again, although one that was unable to master the challenges of the Early Modern period.
Later, in modern history (18th and 19th centuries), many Islamic regions fell under the influence of European Great powers. After the First World War, Ottoman territories (a Central Powers member) were partitioned into several nations under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.
Modern interpretations of Islamic texts advocate the unification of religion and state ruled by a Caliph. Such a polity has not existed since the early Islamic city-states and universal imperial period beginnings. The common slogan al-islam dinun was dawlatun` (translation: Islam is a religion and a state) is neither a Koranic verse nor a quote from the hadith, but a 19th century political Salafi slogan popularized in opposition to Western Egyptian influence. Such a recent origin was a handicap for a belief system bound by the scripture revealed, and the ways of those who lived, twelve centuries earlier.
Although affected by ideologies such as communism during much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues intensified during the early 21st century. Global interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization changed the influence of Islam on the 21st century.